Chuyên đề đọc hiểu (Reading skills) gồm các bài đọc hiểu sưu tầm và biên soạn từ đề thi Tiếng Anh Đại Học chính thức các năm từ 2012 đến 2014. Dành cho các bạn học sinh lớp 10, 11, 12 ôn thi THPT Quốc Gia, ôn thi học sinh giỏi (HSG), làm tài liệu ôn tập nâng cao. tài liệu gồm các bài tập câu hỏi trắc nghiệm có đáp án để các bạn tham khảo, đã kiểm tra để đảm bảo tài liệu chất lượng nhất.
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Tài liệu theo chuyên đề các năm
Trích đoạn tài liệu
Centuries ago, man discovered that removing moisture from food helped to preserve it, and that the easiest way to do this was to expose the food to sun and wind. In this way the North American Indians produced pemmican (dried meat ground into powder and made into cakes), the Scandinavians made stockfish and the Arabs dried dates and apricots.
All foods contain water – cabbage and other leaf vegetables contain as much as 93% water, potatoes and other root vegetables 80%, lean meat 75% and fish anything from 80% to 60% depending on how fatty it is. If this water is removed, the activity of the bacteria which cause food to go bad is checked.
Fruit is sun-dried in Asia Minor, Greece, Spain and other Mediterranean countries, and also in California, South Africa and Australia. The methods used vary, but in general the fruit is spread out on trays in drying yards in the hot sun. In order to prevent darkening, pears, peaches and apricots are exposed to the fumes of burning sulphur before drying. Plums for making prunes, and certain varieties of grapes for making raisins and currants, are dipped in an alkaline solution in order to crack the skins of the fruit slightly and remove their wax coating, so increasing the rate of drying.
Nowadays most foods are dried mechanically; the conventional method of such dehydration is to put food in chambers through which hot air is blown at temperatures of about 110°C at entry to about 45°C at exit. This is the usual method for drying such things as vegetables, minced meat, and fish.
Liquids such as milk, coffee, tea, soups and eggs may be dried by pouring them over a heated horizontal steel cylinder or by spraying them into a chamber through which a current of hot air passes. In the first case, the dried material is scraped off the roller as a thin film which is then broken up into small, though still relatively coarse flakes. In the second process it falls to the bottom of the chamber as a fine powder. Where recognizable pieces of meat and vegetables are required, as in soup, the ingredients are dried separately and then mixed.
Dried foods take up less room and weigh less than the same food packed in cans or frozen, and they do not need to be stored in special conditions. For these reasons they are invaluable to climbers, explorers and soldiers in battle, who have little storage space. They are also popular with housewives because it takes so little time to cook them.
Question 1: What is the main idea of the passage?
- Advantages of dried foods. B. Water: the main component of food.
- Mechanization of drying foods. D. Different methods of drying foods.
Question 2: The phrase “do this” in the first paragraph mostly means ______.
- expose foods to sun and wind B. remove moisture from foods
- produce pemmican D. moisten foods
Question 3: The word “checked” in the second paragraph is closest in meaning to ______.
- reduced considerably B. put a tick C. examined carefully D. motivated to develop
Question 4: In the process of drying certain kinds of fruits, sulphur fumes help ______.
- remove their wax coating B. kill off bacteria
- maintain their color D. crack their skin
Question 5: Nowadays the common method for drying vegetables and minced meat is ______.
- spreading them out on trays in drying yards
- dipping them in an alkaline solution
- putting them in chambers and blowing hot air through
- pouring them over a heated horizontal steel cylinder
Question 6: What does the word “which” in the fourth paragraph refer to?
- Vegetables B. Foods C. Things D. Chambers
Question 7: The final product of the process of drying liquids that uses the first method will be ______.
- small flakes B. fine powder C. dried soup D. recognizable pieces
Question 8: Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage?
- Liquids are not dried in the same way as fruits and vegetables.
- Dried foods have several advantages over canned or frozen foods.
- Fruit is usually dried by being laid out on trays in the sun.
- People in India began to use drying methods centuries ago.
Question 9: According to the passage, dried foods are most useful for ______.
- explorers who are underweight B. soldiers who are not in battle
- people who are on the move D. housewives who have little storage space
Question 10: This passage is mainly ______.
- argumentative B. analytical C. informative D. fictional
We live in a world of tired, sleep deprived people. In his book Counting Sheep, Paul Martin – a behavioural biologist – describes a society which is just too busy to sleep and which does not give sleeping the importance it deserves.
Modern society has invented reasons not to sleep. We are now a 24/7 society where shops and services must be available all hours. We spend longer hours at work than we used to, and more time getting to work.
Mobile phones and email allow us to stay in touch round the clock and late-night TV and the Internet tempt us away from our beds. When we need more time for work or pleasure, the easy solution is to sleep less. The average adult sleeps only 6.2 hours a night during the week, whereas research shows that most people need eight or even eight and a half hours’ sleep to feel at their best. Nowadays, many people have got used to sleeping less than they need and they live in an almost permanent state of ‘sleep debt’.
Until the invention of the electric light in 1879 our daily cycle of sleep used to depend on the hours of daylight. People would get up with the sun and go to bed at nightfall. But nowadays our hours of sleep are mainly determined by our working hours (or our social life) and most people are woken up artificially by an alarm clock. During the day caffeine, the world’s most popular drug, helps to keep us awake. 75% of the world’s population habitually consume caffeine, which up to a point masks the symptoms of sleep deprivation.
What does a chronic lack of sleep do to us? As well as making us irritable and unhappy as humans, it also reduces our motivation and ability to work. This has serious implications for society in general. Doctors, for example, are often chronically sleep deprived, especially when they are on ‘night call’, and may get less than three hours’ sleep. Lack of sleep can seriously impair their mood, judgment, and ability to take decisions. Tired engineers, in the early hours of the morning, made a series of mistakes with catastrophic results. On our roads and motorways lack of sleep kills thousands of people every year. Tests show that a tired driver can be just as dangerous as a drunken driver. However, driving when drunk is against the law but driving when exhausted isn’t. As Paul Martin says, it is very ironic that we admire people who function on very little sleep instead of criticizing them for being irresponsible. Our world would be a much safer, happier place if everyone, whatever their job, slept eight hours a night.
Question 1: According to the passage, which of the following statements is TRUE about Paul Martin?
- He shows his concern for sleep deprivation in modern society.
- He describes the modern world as a place without insomnia.
- He is a scientist who is chronically deprived of sleep.
- He gives an interesting account of a sleepless society.
Question 2: The phrase “round the clock” in the second paragraph is similar in meaning to ______.
- surrounded with clocks B. having a round clock
- during the daytime D. all day and night
Question 3: The writer mentions the Internet in the passage as ______.
- an easy solution to sleep deprivation
- a temptation that prevents us from sleeping
- a factor that is not related to sleep deprivation
- an ineffective means of communication
Question 4: According to the third paragraph, which of the following statements is NOT TRUE?
- The electric light was invented in the 19th century.
- The sun obviously determined our daily routines.
- The electric light has changed our daily cycle of sleep.
- Our social life has no influence on our hours of sleep.
Question 5: The word “which” in the third paragraph refers to ______.
- the world’s population B. caffeine consumption
- reaching a point D. masking the symptoms
Question 6: Which of the following is TRUE, according to the last paragraph?
- Sleep deprivation has negative effects on both individuals and society.
- Doctors ‘on night call’ do not need more than three hours of sleep a day.
- Thousands of people are killed every day by drunken drivers.
- Our motivation decreases with the bigger number of hours we sleep.
Question 7: The word “catastrophic” in the last paragraph probably means ______.
- likely to become worthless B. becoming more noticeable
- bound to bring satisfaction D. causing serious damage or loss
Question 8: Which of the following would the writer of the passage approve of?
- Both drunken drivers and sleep-deprived people should be criticized.
- There is no point in criticizing irresponsible people in our society.
- We certainly can function well even when we hardly sleep.
- Our world would be a much safer place without drinkers.
Question 9: All of the following are mentioned as those whose performance is affected by ‘sleep debt’ EXCEPT ______.
- drivers B. doctors C. engineers D. biologists
Question 10: Which of the following could best serve as the title of the passage?
- A Well-known Biologist B. Sleep Deprivation: Causes and Effects
- Accident Prevention: Urgent! D. A Society of Sleepless People